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Taken together, it is well established that bone contains several distinct perivascular mesenchymal cell populations that play important functional roles in the regulation of hematopoiesis, osteogenesis and vascular homeostasis. What is less clear, however, is the extent to which these mesenchymal cells represent overlapping, completely distinct or interconvertible cell subtypes.

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The vasculature in bone appears to be formed mainly or perhaps even exclusively by angiogenesis. In murine long bones, blood vessels start to invade the cartilage template at embryonic day (E) 13.5 to 14.5, and vascular growth is largely completed in adolescent and young adult animals ( Maes et al., 2010b ) ( No 21 Ruffled Jumpsuit Pictures Sale Online 5CreAn2
). This process of endochondral angiogenesis involves a series of events. First, chondrocytes in the location of the future primary ossification center (POC) cease proliferation, become hypertrophic and secrete pro-angiogenic factors to stimulate angiogenesis; osteoprogenitors in the POC are also a source of pro-angiogenic factors. Next, blood vessels invade the hypertrophic chondrocytes and form an initial vascular network, which is accompanied by ossification processes ( Kronenberg, 2003 ). The release of signals by maturing and hypertrophic growth plate chondrocytes at the two ends of the developing long bone further promotes vessel growth and ossification along the longitudinal axis, which leads to the extension of the growing skeletal element. This also involves the formation of distinguishable metaphyseal and diaphyseal capillary networks ( Kusumbe et al., 2014 ). Later in development, vessels invade the epiphyseal chondrocytes at the two distal ends of the long bone and thereby initiate secondary ossification center (SOC) formation ( Fig.4 ).

Fig. 4.

Endochondral angiogenesis. At ∼E13, mesenchymal cells condense, differentiate into chondrocytes and form cartilage. At ∼E15, non-proliferative chondrocytes in the center of the primary ossification center (POC) become hypertrophic and secrete pro-angiogenic factors that stimulate blood vessel invasion. Blood vessels then extend within the growing bone and grow towards the epiphysis in both directions at P1. By P6, morphologically distinct capillary beds can be readily distinguished in the metaphysis and diaphysis. Blood vessels start to invade the epiphysis and contribute to the formation of the SOC. At P21, bone growth and vascularization are far advanced and all major structures have been established. Abbreviations as Fig. 1 .

As mentioned above, flat bones form via the process of intramembranous ossification and therefore without an intermediate chondrocyte template ( Abzhanov et al., 2007 ). However, just like long bones, flat bones are highly vascularized. This vascularization event ( Fig.5 ) occurs in a similar fashion to that seen during endochondral angiogenesis, which suggests that similar molecular mechanisms are involved ( Clearance 2018 Outlet Limited Edition Womens Jacquard ALine Minidress Opening Ceremony x46MdkCmbJ
). However, as most studies concern endochondral angiogenesis, this Review will focus on the latter process.

Mayer’s Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning suggests, “people learn more from words and pictures than from words alone.” According to Mayer and other scholars, multimedia technology stimulates people’s brains by implementing visual and auditory effects, and thereby assists online users to learn efficiently. Researchers suggest that when users establish dual channels while learning, they tend to understand and memorize better. Mixed literature of this theory are still present in the field of multimedia and social work.

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With the spread and development of the English language around the world, it has become an important way of communicating between different people and cultures. Multimedia Technology creates a platform where language can be taught. The traditional form of teaching English as a Second Language (ESL) in classrooms have drastically changed with the prevalence of technology, making easier for students to obtain language learning skills. Multimedia motivates students to learn more languages through audio, visual and animation support. It also helps create English contexts since an important aspect of learning a language is developing their grammar, vocabulary and knowledge of pragmatics and genres. In addition, cultural connections in terms of forms, contexts, meanings and ideologies have to be constructed. [15] By improving thought patterns, multimedia develops students’ communicative competence by improving their capacity to understand the language. [16] One of the studies, carried out by Izquierdo, Simard and Pulido, presented the correlation between “Multimedia Instruction (MI) and learners’ second language (L2)” [17] and its effects on learning behavior. Their findings based on Gardner ’s theory of the “ Buy Cheap Order Latest Collections Online Lamé Maxi Skirt Black Rick Owens Sale Free Shipping Cheap Big Discount T2yQ9p
of learner motivation and attitudes”, the study shows that there is easier access to language learning materials as well as increased motivation with MI along with the use of Computer-Assisted Language Learning .

Newspaper companies all over are trying to embrace the new phenomenon by implementing its practices in their work. While some have been slow to come around, other major newspapers like Buy Cheap Clearance Outlet Store Locations Alexis 2017 Arleigh Dress w/ Tags dwmTPN
, USA Today and The Washington Post are setting the precedent for the positioning of the newspaper industry in a globalized world.

News reporting is not limited to traditional media outlets. Freelance journalists can make use of different new media to produce multimedia pieces for their news stories. It engages global audiences and tells stories with technology, which develops new communication techniques for both media producers and consumers. The Common Language Project, later renamed to Karl Lagerfeld Pleated KneeLength Skirt Sale Amazon Real Sale Online 7lMjk1W
, is an example of this type of multimedia journalism production.

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